June 3, 2021

Hardwoods (angiosperms) | What Every Woodworker Should Know

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Every woodworker will have used hardwoods (angiosperms) for some projects. It is a type of wood that has very high strength and usually comes from broad-leaved trees. We will look at some of the most common and not-so-common hardwoods.

Abachi (Triplochiton scleroxylon) 

Abachi is a tree of the genus Triplochiton of the Malvaceae family. It is yellow, soft, and light. It manufactures furniture, picture frames, guitars, and moldings.

Acacia (Acacia sp., Robinia pseudoacacia)

Acacia comes in multiple species that produce timber. It originated in Australia. It makes furniture, bowls, cabinets, and carvings.  Acacia is hard, dense, and available. It is also water-resistant and durable. 

African padauk (Pterocarpus soyauxii)

The African padauk is a Pterocarpus species. It belongs to the Fabaceae family. It is found in Central and West Africa. It makes stringed instruments due to its tonal attributes. 

Afzelia, doussi (Afzelia africana)

Afzelia is an African mahogany tree that belongs to the Fabaceae family. It builds ship material. The bark is used for medical purposes. 

Agba, tola (Gossweilerodendron balsamiferum) 

Agba is a forest tree that belongs to the Fabaceae family. It originated from the lowland tropical rainforest. It is a Prioria genus. It is for construction, flooring, furniture, and shipbuilding.

Alder (Alnus)

Black alder (Alnus glutinosa)

Black Alder belongs to the Betulaceae family. It is in the Alnus genus. It works as a stabilizer to river banks. The wood makes papers. That is why it is for the foundation of buildings. The burnt wood makes smoked fish and other foods.

Red alder (Alnus rubra)

The Alunus Rubra originated from western North America. It belongs to the Betulaceae family, and the genus is Alnus. The bark makes dye and poison for insects. It comes with easy finishing that makes it ideal for furniture and cabinetry. It is soft and well-balanced for making guitars.

Ash (Fraxinus)

Black ash (Fraxinus nigra)

Black Ash is a species of F.nigra, and it belongs to the Oleaceae family. The genus is Fraxinus, and it originated from Eastern Canada and the North-eastern United States. The wood makes baskets and electric guitars.

Blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata)

Blue ash is a species of F.quadrangulata. It belongs to the Oleaceae family, and the genus is Fraxinus. It makes baseball bats, furniture, tool handles, crates, barrels, and flooring.

Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior)

What differentiates common ash from the rest is the flowering plant from the Oleaceae family. It originates from Europe. It is a species of the F.excelsior and a genus of the Fraxinus. It is hard to wear and tough. It is flexible and resistant to shock and splitting. That is why it makes bows, tool handles, rackets, and snooker cue sticks.

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)

Green ash is a species of the ash native, and the genus is Fraxinus. It belongs to the Oleaceae family. It makes electric guitars since it is light and has a bright sound. 

Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia)

Oregon ash belongs to the genus Fraxinus and originated from Western North America. It is a species of F.latifonia. It makes sports equipment and tool handles. 

Pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda)

It is a Fraxinusthat that originated from eastern North America. It is from the Oleaceae family. The wood is used as lumber, naval, and nursery products. It makes tool handles.

White ash (Fraxinus Americana)

It is a species of the F.americana from the Oleaceae family. It is a Fraxinus genus, and it originated from North America. The wood is dense. It makes baseball bats and tool handles.

Aspen (Populus)

Bigtooth aspen (Populus gradidentata)

Bigtooth aspen is from eastern North America. It is a P.grandidentata and genus of populous. It comes from Salicaceae. It makes pallets, boxes, hockey sticks, and ladders.

European aspen (Populus tremula)

It is a species of poplar. tremular. The genus is populous, and it is from the Salicaceae family. It makes lumber, matches, writing paper, and particle boards.

Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

It comes from America from the Salicaceae family. It is a poplus genus and used to make books, print paper, and newsprint.

Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata)

It comes from the Melia family, and it is a Toona Genus. It is a T.CILIATA SPECIES. The wood is for furniture, construction, and wood paneling.

Ayan, moving (Distemonanthus benthamianus)

It comes from a flowering plant that belongs to the Fabaceae family, and the subfamily is dialioideae. It is a species of the D.benthamianus. It is for cabinet use, flooring, and decorating.

Balsa (Ochroma pyramidale)

Balsa wood is an Ochroma.pyramidale species from the Malvaceae family. It is a genus of Ochroma. It comes from America. It makes wooden crankbaits for fishing, table tennis bats, and wooden props.

Basswood, linden

American basswood (Tilia americana)

It is a species of Tilia Americana and comes from the Malvaceae family. It belongs to the genus of Tilia. It makes electric guitars.

White basswood (Tilia heterophylla)

White basswood is a Tilia caroliniana species of tree from the Malvaceae family. The genus is ialia and for fishing tools.

American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

American beech is from Fagaceae family and the Fagus grandifolia species. The genus is Fagus. It names carvings and decorative symbols.

Birch (Betula)

American birches

Gray birch (Betula populifolia)

It is a species from Betula populifolia that belongs to the Betulaceae family. The genus of the tree is Betula. It makes high-grade plywood since it is hard. It is for making furniture, drum shells, spools and firewood.

Black birch (Betula nigra)

The Black birch is a species of the Betula nigra. It belongs to the Betulaceae family, and the genus is Betula. The wood makes crates, boxes, and interior trim.

Paper birch (Betula papyrifera)

It is from the Betulaceae family and originated from northern North America. The genus is Betula, and it is a species of Betula papyrifera. It is fr furniture and flooring.

Sweet birch (Betula lenta)

It is from the Betulaceae family and originated from northern North America. The genus is Betula, and it is a species of Betula lenta. It is for furniture and cabinets.

Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)

It is from the Betulaceae family and originated from northeastern North America. The genus is Betula, and it is a species of Betula alleghaniensis. It is for furniture, flooring, doors, cabinets, and toothpicks.

European birches

Silver birch (Betula pendula)

It is from the Betulaceae family and originated from northeastern East Asia. The genus is Betula, and it is a species of Betula pendula. It is for racecourse jumps and besom brooms.

Downy birch (Betula pubescens)

It is from the Betulaceae family and originated from Europe. The genus is Betula, and it is a species of Betula pubscens. It is for canoe skins, drinking vessels, and roofing tiles.

Blackbean (Castanospermum australe)

It is from the Fabaceae family and originated from the east coast of Australia. The genus is Castanospermum, and it is a species of the Castanospermum australe . It is for spear throwers.

Blackwood

Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon)

It is from the Fabaceae family and originated from Southeastern Australia. The genus is Acacia, and it is a species of Acacia melanoxylon . It is for wood panels, cabinetry, tools, boats, and boxes. 

African blackwood, mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon)

It is from the Eugenia family and originated from Senegal east and South Africa. The genus is Dalbergia, and it is a species of Dalbergia melanoxylon. It is for furniture.

Bloodwood (Brosimum rubescens)

It is from the Fabaceae family and originated from South America. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of the Brosimum rubescenes. It is for turned objects, furniture, guitars, knife handles, and carvings.

Boxelder (Acer negundo)

It is from the Sapindaceae family and originated from North America. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer negundo. It makes turned items like bowls, tubes, dishes, pipe stems, and decorative applications.

Boxwood, common box (Buxus sempervirens)

It is from the Buxaceae family and originated from Western and southern Europe. The genus is Buxus, and it is a species of the Buxus sempervirens. It makes turned items like cabinets, flute crafts, and tool handles.

Brazilian walnut (Ocotea porosa)

It is from the Lauraceae family and originated in Brazil. The genus is Ocotea, and it is a species of the Ocotea porosa. It makes high-end furniture, flooring, and decorative veneers.

Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata)

It is from the Fabaceae family and originated in Brazil. The genus is Paubrasilia, and it is a species of Paubrasilia echinata. It makes bows for stringed instruments.

Buckeye, Horse-chestnut (Aesculus)

Horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)

It is from the Sapindaceae family and originated from Europe. The genus is Aesculus, and it is a species of Aesculus hippocastanum. It is used to make veneer, plywood, interior trim, and turned objects. 

Ohio buckeye (Aesculus glabra)

It is from the Sapindaceae family and originated from Europe. The genus is Aesculus, and it is a species of Aesculus glabra. It makes furniture, boxes, pulpwood, and electric guitar tops. 

Yellow buckeye (Aesculus flava)

It is from the Sapindaceae family and originated from the Eastern United States. The genus is Aesculus, and it is a species of Aesculus flava. It makes buffer strips.

Butternut (Juglans cinerea)

It is from the Juglandaceae family and originated from the Eastern United States and southeast Canada. The genus is juglans, and it is a species of Juglans cinerea. It makes furniture.

California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica)

It is from the Juglandaceae family and originated from the Eastern United States and southeast Canada. The genus is juglans, and it is a species of Juglans cinerea. It makes furniture.

Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora)

It is from the Lauraceae family and originated in Taiwan. The genus is Cinnamomum, and it is a species of Cinnamomum camphora. It makes boats, sculptors, and furniture.

Cape chestnut (Calodendrum capense)

It is from the Rutaceae family and originated in South Africa. The genus is Calodendrum, and it is a species of calodendrum capense. It makes tent bows, wagons, shovel handles, and furniture.

Catalpa, catawba (Catalpa)

It is from the Bignoniaceae family and originated from North America. The genus is Catalpa, and it is a species of Catalpa bignonioides. It works as a tonewood in guitars.

Ceylon satinwood (Chloroxylon swietenia)

It is from the Rutaceae family and originated from Southern and central India and Sri Lanka. The genus is Chloroxylon DC, and it is a species of Chloroxylon swietenia. It is for furniture, paneling, pattern making, carvings, toys, musical instruments, decorative timber, and flooring.

Cherry (Prunus)

Black cherry (Prunus serotina)

It is from the Rosaceae family and originated from South and North America. The genus is Prunus, and it is a species of Prunus serotina. It is for high-quality cabinets.

Red Cherry (Prunus pensylvanica)

It is from the Rosaceae family and originated from North America. The genus is Prunus, and it is a species of Prunus pensylvanica. It is for cabinets.

Wild cherry (Prunus avium)

It is from the Rosaceae family and originated from North America. The genus is Prunus, and it is a species of Prunus pensylvanica. It is for high-quality cabinets.

Chestnut (Castanea spp.)

Chestnut (Castanea sativa)

It is from the Fagaceae family and originated from the Northern hemisphere. The genus is Castanea, and it is a species of Castanea sativa. It is for decorative furniture and cupboards.

American Chestnut (Castanea dentata)

It is from the Fagaceae family and originated from eastern North America. The genus is Castanea, and it is a species of Castanea dentata. It is for furniture, flooring, plywood, and telephone poles.

Coachwood (Ceratopetalum apetalum)

Coachwood is from the Cunoneaceae family and originated from eastern Australia. The genus is Ceratopetalum, and it is a species of Ceratopetalum apetalum. It is for furniture, flooring, cabinets, wood carving, interior fittings, spars, and mars for boats.

Cocobolo (Dalbergia retusa)

Cocobolo is from the Fabaceae family and originated from eastern Australia. The genus is Dalbergia, and it is a species of Dalbergia retusa. It is for architectural woodwork, musical instruments, tool handles, and turnery.

Corkwood (Leitneria floridana)

Corkwood is from the Simaroubaceae family and originated from the Southern United States. The genus is Leitneriaia, and it is a species of Leitneria floridana. It is for flooring.

Cottonwood, popular

Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides)

Eastern cottonwood is from the Salicaceae family and originated from North America. The genus is Populus, and it is a species of Populus deltoides. It is for plywood and interior furniture.

Swamp cottonwood (Populus heterophylla)

Swamp cottonwood is from the Salicaceae family and originated from North America. The genus is Populus, and it is a species of Populus heterophylla. It is for plywood and interior furniture.

Cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminata)

Cucumbertree is from the Salicaceae family and originated from North America. The genus is Populus, and it is a species of Populus heterophylla. It is for plywood and interior furniture.

Cumaru (Dipteryx spp.)

Cumaru is from the Fabaceae family and originated from South and Central America. The genus is Dipteryx, and it is a species of Dipteryx alata. It is for construction, furniture, bearings, and railroad ties.

Dogwood (Cornus spp.)

Dogwood is from the Cornaceae family and originated from North America. The genus is Cornus, and it is a species of Cornus sanguinea. It is for arrows and walking canes.

Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida)

Pacific dogwood (Cornus nuttallii)

Ebony (Diospyros)

Ebony is from the family and originated in Niger. The genus is Diospyros, and it is a species of Diospyros ebenum. It is for musical instruments.

Andaman marblewood (Diospyros kurzii)

It is from the family and originated in India. The genus is Diospyros, and it is a species of Diospyros kurzii. It is for furniture and floorboards.

Ebène marbre (Diospyros melanida)

It is from the family and originated in Sierra Leone. The genus is Diospyros, and it is a species of Diospyros melanida. It is for furniture and floorboards.

African ebony (Diospyros crassiflora)

It is from the family and originated in Ghana. The genus is Diospyros, and it is a species of Diospyros crassiflora. It is often used for musical instruments.

Edwards’ wood (Cayratia densa)

It is from the cucumbertree family and originated in Jamaica. The genus is Cayratia, and it is a species of Cayratia densa. It makes mostly furniture and flooring, but can also be used for turnery.

Ceylon ebony (Diospyros ebenum)

It is from the family and originated in Sri Lanka. The genus is Diospyros, and it is a species of Diospyros ebenum. It makes musical instruments and turnery.

Elm

Elm is from the family of Ulmaceae and originated from North America. The genus is Ulmus, and it is a species of Ulmus subgenera. It is for boat building.

American elm (Ulmus Americana)

It is from the family of Ulmaceae and originated from North America. The genus is Ulmus, and it is a species of Ulmus subgenera. It is used for paneling, flooring, furniture, construction, bows for archers and arrows, homemade musical instruments (such as guitars), veneer, and slab.

English elm (Ulmus procera)

It is from the family of Ulmaceae and originated from North America. The genus is Ulmus, and it is a species of Ulmus subgenera. It is used for paneling, flooring, furniture, construction, bows for archers and arrows, homemade musical instruments (such as guitars), veneer, and slab.

Rock elm (Ulmus thomasii)

 Rock elm is from the family of Ulmaceae and originated from North America. The genus is Ulmus, and it is a species of Ulmus subgenera. It is used for paneling, flooring, furniture, construction, bows for archers and arrows, homemade musical instruments (such as guitars), veneer, and slab.

Slippery elm, red elm (Ulmus rubra)

It is from the family of Ulmaceae and originated from North America. The genus is Ulmus, and it is a species of Ulmus subgenera. It’s used for paneling, flooring, furniture, construction, bows for archers and arrows, homemade musical instruments (such as guitars), veneer, and slab.

Wych elm (Ulmus glabra)

It is from the family of Ulmaceae and originated in North America. The genus is Ulmus, and it is a species of Ulmus subgenera. It’s used as paneling, flooring, furniture, construction, bows for archers and arrows, homemade musical instruments (such as guitars), veneer, and slab.

China elm (Ulmus parvifolia)

It is from the family of Ulmaceae and originated in China. The genus is Ulmus, and it is a species of Ulmus subgenera. It is used for flooring and furniture.

Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus is from the family of Myrtaceae and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus obliqua. It is often used for fence posts.

Lyptus: Flooded gum (Eucalyptus grandis)

Lyptus: Flooded gum is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus regnans. It’s used for flooring and plywood.

White mahogany (Eucalyptus acmenoides)

White mahogany is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus acmenoides. It’s used for veneer.

Brown mallet (Eucalyptus astringens)

Brown mallet is from the Myrtaceae family and originated from Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus astringens. It’s used for veneer.

Banglay, southern mahogany (Eucalyptus botryoides)

Southern banglay is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus botryoides. It’s used as veneer and paneling.

River red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis)

It is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. It’s used for flooring and paneling.

Karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor)

Karri is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus diversicolor. It’s used for paneling.

Bluegum (Eucalyptus globulus)

Bluegum is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus globulus. It’s used for veneer.

Flooded gum, rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis)

Flooded gum is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus regnans. It’s used for furniture, flooring, plywood, interior fittings, paneling, exterior fittings, construction woodwork (e.g., walls), and pulpwood.

York gum (Eucalyptus loxophleba)

It is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus loxophleba. It’s used for veneer.

Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata)

Jarrah is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus marginata. It’s used for veneer.

Strawberry gum (Eucalyptus polyanthemos)

Strawberry gum is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus polyanthemos.

Tallowwood (Eucalyptus microcorys)

Tallowwood is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus microcorys. It’s used for paneling.

Honey-scented gum (Eucalyptus microcorys)

Honey-scented gum is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia.

Grey ironbark (Eucalyptus paniculata)

It is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus paniculata. It’s used for flooring.

Blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis)

Blackbutt is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus pilularis. It’s used for veneer and paneling.

Sandbag (Eucalyptus pulcherrima)

Sandbag is from the family of Myrtaceae. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus pulcherrima.

Mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans)

Mountain ash is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus regnans. It’s used for veneer.

Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus)

It is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Tasmania. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus globulus.

Australian oak (Eucalyptus obliqua)

It is from the family of Myrtaceae and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus obliqua.

Red ironbark (Eucalyptus podorrhyncha)

It is from the family of Myrtaceae and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus podorrhyncha.

Alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis)

Alpine ash is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus delegatensis.

Silvertop stringybark (Eucalyptus sieberi)

It is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus sieberi.

Red mahogany (Eucalyptus resinifera)

Red mahogany is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus resinifera.

Swamp mahogany, swamp messmate (Eucalyptus robusta)

Swamp mahogany is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus robusta.

Sydney blue gum (Eucalyptus saligna)

It is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus saligna. It’s used for flooring, furniture, plywood, interior fittings (e.g., paneling), and exterior fittings.

Mugga, red ironbark (Eucalyptus sideroxylon)

It is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus sideroxylon. It’s used for flooring.

Bindi (Eucalyptus stoliniiformis)

Bindi is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus stoliniiformis. It’s used as veneer.

Redwood (Eucalyptus transcontinentalis)

It is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus transcontinentalis.

White mahogany (Eucalyptus tricarpa)

It is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus yarraensis. It’s used as veneer.

Wandoo (Eucalyptus wandoo)

It is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus wandoo. It’s used for veneer.

Red mahogany (Eucalyptus resinifera)

It is from the Myrtaceae family and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus resinifera.

European crabapple (Malus sylvestris)

European crab apple is from the family of Rosaceae and originated from Europe. The genus is Malus, and it is a species of Malus sylvestris. It is for canes and pipes.

European pear (Pyrus communis)

European pear is from the family of Rosaceae and originated from central and eastern Europe. The genus is Pyrus, and it is a species of Pyrus communis. It is for furniture and musical instruments.

Gonçalo alves (Astronium spp.)

Goncalo alves is from the family of Anacardiaceae and originated from central and South America. The genus is Astronium, and it is a species of Astronium balansea. It is used for furniture, joinery, carpentry, and carving.

Greenheart (Chlorocardium rodiei)

Greenheart is from the family of Lauraceae and originated from South America. The genus is Chlorocardium, and it is a species of Chlorocardium rodiei. It makes dock gates.

Grenadilla, mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon)

Grenadilla is from the family of Fabaceae and originated in Senegal. The genus is Dalbergia, and it is a species of Dalbergis melanoxylon. It makes woodwind instruments.

Guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense)

Guanandi is from the family of Calophyllaceae and originated in Mexico. The genus is Calophyllum, and it is a species of Calophyllaceae brasiliense. It is constructs boats and canoes.

Gum (Eucalyptus)

Gum is from the family of Myrtaceae and originated in Australia. The genus is Eucalyptus, and it is a species of Eucalyptus obliqua. It makes musical instruments.

Gumbo limbo (Bursera simaruba)

Gumbo limbo is from the family of Burseraceae and originated from America. The genus is Bursera, and it is a species of Bursera simaruba. It makes trunks and drums.

Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)

Hackberry is from the family of Cannabaceae and originated from North America. The genus is Celtis, and it is a species of Celtis occidentalis. It is for fencing and furniture.

Hickory (Carya)

Hickory is from the family of Juglandaceae and originated from the United States. The genus is Carya, and it is a species of Carya tomentosa. It makes tool handles, bowls, wheel spokes, drumsticks, walking sticks, golf club shafts, and hickory sticks.

Pecan (Carya illinoinensis)

Pecan is from the family of Juglandaceae and originated from the United States. The genus is Carya, and it is a species of Carya illinoinensis. It makes musical instruments, spoons, and ladles.

Pignut hickory (Carya glabra)

Pignut hickory is from the family of Juglandaceae and originated from the united states. The genus is Carya, and it is a species of Carya glabra. It makes musical instruments, bowls, and spoons.

Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata)

Shagbark hickory is from the family of Juglandaceae and originated from the United States. The genus is Carya, and it is a species of Carya ovata. It makes golf club shafts, walking sticks, tool handles, bowls, spoons, and ladles.

Shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa)

Shellbark hickory is from the family of Juglandaceae and originated from the United States. The genus is Carya, and it is a species of Carya laciniosa. It makes fishing rods, scuba diving equipment, and golf club shafts.

Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana)

Texas persimmon is from the family of Ebenaceae and originated in Texas. The genus is Diospyros, and it is a species of Diospyros texana.

Hornbeam (Carpinus spp.)

Hornbeam is from the Betulaceae family and originated from America. The genus is Carpinus, and it is a species of Carpinus betulus. It makes chess pieces, cutting boards, parquet flooring, tools, and soles for wooden planes.

American hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)

Ipê (Handroanthus spp.)

Ipe is from the family of Bignoniaceae and originated from America. The genus is Handroanthus, and it is a species of Handroanthus albus. It makes hunting bows.

Iroko, African teak (Milicia excelsa)

Iroko is from the family of Moraceae and originated from the west coast of tropical Africa. The genus is Milicia, and it is a species of Milicia excelsa. It makes boat buildings, flooring, furniture, and gates.

Ironwood

Ironwood is from the family of Lauraceae and originated in Indonesia. The genus is Androstachys, and it is a species of Androstachys johnsonii. It makes ornaments and cabinets.

Balau (Shorea spp.)

Balau is from the family of Dipterocarpaceae and originated in Malaysia. The genus is Shorea, and it is a species of Shorea panarubens. It makes furniture, construction products (e.g., mats), flooring, bowls, spoons and ladles.

American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana)

Hornbeam is from the Betulaceae family and originated from America. The genus is Carpinus, and it is a species of Carpinus caroliniana. It makes veneer, bowls, spoons, and ladles.

Sheoak, Polynesian ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia)

Sheoak is from the family of Casuarinaceae and originated in Australia. The genus is Casuarina, and it is a species of Casuarina equisetifolia. It makes flooring, musical instruments, woodworking tools, wooden furniture, interiors, and insulation products.

Giant ironwood (Choricarpia subargentea)

Giant ironwood is from the family of Fabaceae and originated in Brazil. The genus is Choricarpia, and it is a species of Choricarpia subargentea. It makes tableware.

Diesel tree (Copaifera langsdorffii)

Diesel tree is from the family of Fabaceae and originated from Cameroon. The genus is Copaifera, and it is a species of Copaifera langsdorffii. It makes fence posts.

Borneo ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri)

Borneo ironwood is from the family of Fabaceae and originated from Borneo. The genus is Eusideroxylon, and it is a species of Eusideroxylon zwageri. It makes furniture and outdoor furniture.

Lignum vitae

Lignum vitae is from the family of Lauraceae and originated in the Caribbean. The genus is Guaiacum, and it is a species of Guaiacum officinale. It makes canes, walking sticks, boat building materials, knife handles, and golf club heads.

Guaiacwood (Guaiacum officinale)

Guaiacwood is from the family of Lauraceae and originated from South America. The genus is Guaiacum, and it is a species of Guaiacum officinale. It makes furniture and outdoor furniture.

Holywood (Guaiacum sanctum)

Holywood is from the family of Lauraceae and originated from New Zealand. The genus is Guaiacum, and it is a species of Guaiacum sanctum. It makes furniture, outdoor furniture, canes, and walking sticks.

Takian (Hopea odorata)

Takian is from the family of Dipterocarpaceae and originated in Vietnam. The genus is Hopea, and it is a species of Hopea odorata. It makes musical instruments and furniture.

Black ironwood (Krugiodendron ferreum)

Krugiodendron ferreum is from the family of Fabaceae and originated from Africa. The genus is Cordia, and it is a species of Cordia africana. It makes musical instruments, veneer, and furniture.

Black ironwood, olive (Olea spp.)

Black ironwood is from the family of Oleaceae and originated in South America. The genus is Olea, and it is a species of Olea europaea. It makes musical instruments, canoe hulls, veneers, and furniture.

Lebombo ironwood Androstachys johnsonii

Lebombo ironwood is from the family of Moraceae and originated in Africa. The genus is Androstachys, and it is a species of Androstachys johnsonii. It makes furniture, dining tables, veneers, musical instruments, and construction materials.

Catalina ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus)

Catalina ironwood is from the family of Combretaceae and originated in Mexico. The genus is Lyonothamnus, and it is a species of Lyonothamnus floribundus. It makes musical instruments, furniture, and wooden manufactures.

Ceylon ironwood (Mesua ferrea)

Ceylon ironwood is from the family of Myristicaceae and originated from Sri Lanka. The genus is Mesua, and it is a species of Mesua ferrea. It makes furniture, flooring, chopsticks, and walking sticks.

Desert ironwood (Olneya tesota)

Desert ironwood is from the family of Fabaceae and originated in Mexico. The genus is Olneya, and it is a species of Olneya tesota. It makes musical instruments and furniture.

Persian ironwood (Parrotia persica)

Persian ironwood is from the family of Moraceae and originated in South Asia. The genus is Parrotia, and it is a species of Parrotia persica. It makes musical instruments, veneers, and furniture.

Brazilian ironwood, pau ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea)

Brazilian ironwood is from the family of Caesalpiniaceae and originated in Brazil. The genus is Caesalpinia, and it is a species of Caesalpinia ferrea. It makes furniture, veneers, musical instruments, and construction materials.

Yellow lapacho (Tabebuia serratifolia)

Yellow lapacho is from the family of Bignoniaceae and originated from America. The genus is Tabebuia, and it is a species of Tabebuia serratifolia. It makes walking sticks, musical instruments, and construction materials.

Jacarandá-boca-de-sapo (Jacaranda brasiliana)

Jacaranda-boca-de-sapo is from the family of Bignoniaceae and originated from Brazil. The genus is Jacaranda, and it is a species of Jacaranda brasiliana. It makes furniture.

Jacarandá de Brasil (Dalbergia nigra)

Jacaranda de Brasil is from the family of Fabaceae and originated in Brazil. The genus is Dalbergia, and it is a species of Dalbergia nigra. It makes instruments and handles.

Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril)

Jatoba is from the family of Fabaceae and originated from America. The genus is Hymenaea, and it is a species of Hymenaea courbaril. It makes furniture, flooring, and decoration.

Kingwood (Dalbergia cearensis)

Kingwood is from the family of Fabaceae and originated in Brazil. The genus is Dalbergia, and it is a species of Dalbergia cearensis. It makes shipbuilding and railroad ties.

Lacewood

Lacewood is from the family of Fabaceae and originated in Brazil. The genus is Dalbergia, and it is a species of Dalbergia cearensis. It makes shipbuilding and railroad ties.

Northern silky oak (Cardwellia sublimis)

Northern silky oak is from the family of Myrtaceae and originated in Australia. The genus is Cardwellia, and it is a species of Cardwellia sublimis. It makes veneers, furniture, and cabinet wood.

The American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)

The American sycamore is from the family of Platanaceae and originated from America. The genus is Platanus, and it is a species of Platanus occidentalis. It makes boat-building, flooring, furniture, musical instruments, ladders, and parquet.

London plane (Platanus × acerifolia)

London plane is from the family of Platanaceae and originated in the United Kingdom. The genus is Platanus, and it is a species of Platanus × acerifolia. It makes furniture, flooring, musical instruments, ladders, and parquet.

Limba (Terminalia superba)

Limba is from the family of Combretaceae and originated from Africa. The genus is Terminalia, and it is a species of Terminalia superba. It makes furniture, table tennis blades and musical instruments.

Mahogany

Mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated from America. The genus is Swietenia, and it is a species of Swietenia macrophylla. It makes furniture and cabinets.

Genuine mahogany (Swietenia)

Genuine mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated from America. The genus is Swietenia, and it is a species of Swietenia intermedia. It makes furniture and cabinets.

West Indies mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni)

West Indies mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in Africa. The genus is Swietenia, and it is a species of Swietenia mahagoni. It makes furniture.

Bigleaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla)

Bigleaf mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in the United States. The genus is Swietenia, and it is a species of Swietenia macrophylla. It makes furniture.

Pacific Coast mahogany (Swietenia humilis)

Pacific Coast mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in America. The genus is Swietenia, and it is a species of Swietenia humilis. It makes furniture.

African mahogany (Khaya spp.)

African mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in Africa. The genus is Khaya, and it is a species of Khaya ivorensis. It makes furniture and cabinets.

Chinese Mahogany (Toona sinensis)

Chinese mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in China. The genus is Toona, and it is a species of Toona sinensis. It makes furniture and cabinets.

Australian red cedar, Indian mahogany (Toona ciliata)

Australian red cedar is from the family of Meliaceae and originated from Australia. The genus is Toona, and it is a species of Toona ciliata. It makes furniture.

Philippine mahogany, calantis, kalantis (Toona calantas)

Philippine mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in the Philippines. The genus is Toona, and it is a species of Toona calantas. It makes furniture and cabinets.

Indonesian mahogany, suren (Toona sureni)

Indonesian mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in Indonesia. The genus is Toona, and it is a species of Toona sureni. It makes furniture, cabinets, musical instruments, and veneer.

Sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum)

Sapele is from the family of Fabaceae and originated in America. The genus is Entandrophragma, and it is a species of Entandrophragma cylindricum. It makes furniture, veneer, and construction materials.

Sipo, utile (Entandrophragma utile)

Sipo, utile is from the family of Fabaceae and originated in America. The genus is Entandrophragma, and it is a species of Entandrophragma utile. It makes furniture, veneer, and construction materials.

Tiama, (Entandrophragma angolense)

Tiama, Entandrophragma angolense is from the family of Fabaceae and originated in Africa. The genus is Entandrophragma, and it is a species of Entandrophragma angolense. It makes veneer and construction materials.

Kosipo, (Entandrophragma candollei)

Kosipo, Entandrophragma candollei is from the family of Fabaceae and originated in Africa. The genus is Entandrophragma, and it is a species of Entandrophragma candollei. It makes veneer and construction materials.

Ethiopian mahogany (Entandrophragma serpentinum)

Ethiopian mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in Ethiopia. The genus is Entandrophragma, and it is a species of Entandrophragma serpentinum. It makes veneer and construction materials.

Mountain mahogany, bottle tree (Entandrophragma caudatumi)

Mountain mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in America. The genus is Entandrophragma, and it is a species of Entandrophragma candollei. It makes veneer and construction materials.

Indian mahogany, chickrassy, chittagong wood (Chukrasia velutina)

Indian mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in India. The genus is Chukrasia, and it is a species of C. velutina. It makes veneer and construction materials.

Spanish Cedar, cedro, Brazilian mahogany (Cedrela odorata)

Spanish cedar is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in Africa. The genus is Cedrela, and it is a species of Cedrela odorata. It makes veneer and construction materials.

Light bosse, pink mahogany (Guarea cedrata)

Light bosse is from the family of Elaeagnaceae and originated in America. The genus is Guarea, and it is a species of Guarea cedrata. It makes veneer and construction materials.

East Indian mahogany (Guillainia excelsa)

East Indian mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in India. The genus is Guillainia, and it is a species of Guillainia excelsa. It makes veneer and construction materials.

Dark bosse, pink Mahogany (Guarea thompsonii)

Dark bosse is from the family of Elaeagnaceae and originated in America. The genus is Guarea, and it is a species of Guarea thompsonii. It makes veneer and construction materials.

South American mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla)

South American mahogany is from the family of Meliaceae and originated in Africa. The genus is Swietenia, and it is a species of Swietenia macrophylla. It makes furniture.

American muskwood (Guarea grandifolia)

American muskwood is from the family of Elaeagnaceae and originated in America. The genus is Guarea, and it is a species of Guarea grandifolia. It makes veneer and construction materials.

Bead-tree, white cedar, Persian lilac (Melia azedarach)

Bead-tree is from the family of Zingiberaceae and originated in India. The genus is Melia, and it is a species of Melia azedarach. It makes veneer, construction materials, and musical instruments.

Maple (Acer)

Maple is from the family of Sapindaceae and originated from America. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer pseudoplatanus. It makes bowling pins, baseball bats, and pool cue shafts.

Hard maple

Sugar maple (Acer saccharum)

Sugar maple is from the family of Sapindaceae and originated from America. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer saccharum. It makes lumber, boatbuilding timber, gymnasium, and flooring.

Juglone-free black maple (Acer nigrum)

Juglone-free black maple is from the family of Sapindaceae and originated in America. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer nigrum.

Black maple (Acer nigrum)

Black maple is from the family of Sapindaceae and originated in America. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer nigrum. It makes lumber, boatbuilding timber, gymnasium, and flooring.

Red maple (Acer rubrum)

Red maple is from the family of Sapindaceae and originated in America. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer rubrum. It makes lumber, boatbuilding timber, gymnasium, and flooring.

Soft maple

Boxelder (Acer negundo)

Boxelder is from the family of Sapindaceae and originated in America. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer negundo. It makes furniture, ladders, and parquet.

Bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum)

Bigleaf maple is from the family of Sapindaceae and originated in America. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer macrophyllum. It makes lumber, boatbuilding timber, gymnasium, and flooring.

Red maple (Acer rubrum)

Red maple is from the family of Sapindaceae and originated in America. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer rubrum. It makes lumber, boatbuilding timber, gymnasium, and flooring.

Silver maple (Acer saccharinum)

Silver maple is from the family of Sapindaceae and originated in America. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer saccharum. It makes lumber, boatbuilding timber, gymnasium, and flooring.

European maple

Norway maple (Acer platanoides)

Norway maple is from the family of Sapindaceae and originated in Europe. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer platanoides. It makes lumber, boatbuilding timber, gymnasium, and flooring.

Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus)

Sycamore maple is from the family of Sapindaceae and originated in Europe. The genus is Acer, and it is a species of Acer pseudoplatanus. It makes lumber, boatbuilding timber, gymnasium, and flooring.

Marri, red gum (Corymbia calophylla)

Marri is from the family of Myrtaceae and originated from Australia. The genus is Corymbia, and it is a species of Corymbia calophylla. It makes doarks.

Meranti (Shorea spp.)

Meranti is from the family of Dipterocarpaceae and originated from Britain. The genus is Shorea, and it is a species of Shorea robusta. It makes furniture.

Oak (Quercus)

Oak is from the family of Fagaceae and originated from America. The genus is Quercus, and it is a species of Quercus. It makes furniture and flooring.

Tupelo (Nyssa spp.)

Tupelo is from the family of Nyssaceae and originated from Northern Florida. The genus is Nyssa, and it is a species of Nyssa aquatica. It makes books and papers.

Black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica)

Black tupelo is from the family of Nyssaceae and originated in America. The genus is Nyssa, and it is a species of Nyssa sylvatica. It makes furniture and flooring.

Tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera)

Tulip tree is from the family of Magnoliaceae and originated in America. The genus is Liriodendron, and it is a species of Liriodendron tulipifera. It makes veneer, construction materials, and musical instruments.

Turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera)

Turpentine is from the family of Myrtaceae and originated from New South Wales. The genus is Syncarpia, and it is a species of Syncarpia glomulifera. It makes poles and floors.

Walnut (Juglans)

Walnut is from the family of Juglandaceae and originated from Persia. The genus is Juglans, and it is a species of Juglans cinerea. It makes interior panels and instruments.

Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra)

Eastern black walnut is from the family of Juglandaceae and originated in America. The genus is Juglans, and it is a species of Juglans nigra. It makes cabinets and interior panels.

Common walnut (Juglans regia)

Common walnut is from the family of Juglandaceae and originated in Persia. The genus is Juglans, and it is a species of Juglans regia. It makes furniture and interior panels.

European Walnut (Juglans regia)

European Walnut is from the family of Juglandaceae and originated in Europe. The genus is Juglans, and it is a species of Juglans regia. It makes furniture and interior panels.

Wenge (Millettia laurentii)

Wenge is from the family of Fabaceae and originated from Africa. The genus is Millettia, and it is a species of Millettia laurentii. It makes flooring and staircases.

Panga-panga (Millettia stuhlmannii)

Panga-panga is from the family of Fabaceae and originated from Africa. The genus is Millettia, and it is a species of Millettia stuhlmannii. It makes flooring and staircases.

Willow (Salix)

Willow is from the family of Salicaceae and originated from regions of the Northern hemisphere. The genus is Salix, and it is a species of Salis alba. It makes brooms, bats, toys, handles, and whistles.

Black willow (Salix nigra)

Black willow is from the family of Salicaceae and originated from Asia. The genus is Salix, and it is a species of Salix nigra. It makes brooms, bats, toys, handles, and whistles.

Common weeping willow (Salix babylonica)

The common weeping willow is from the family of Salicaceae and originated from Asia. The genus is Salix, and it is a species of Salix babylonica. It makes brooms, hats, toys, and optical instruments.

Cricket-bat willow (Salix alba ‘Caerulea’)

Cricket-bat willow is from the family of Salicaceae and originated from Asia. The genus is Salix, and it is a species of Salix alba ‘Caerulea’. It makes brooms, hats, toys, and optical instruments.

White willow (Salix alba)

White willow is from the family of Salicaceae and originated from Asia. The genus is Salix, and it is a species of Salix alba. It makes brooms, hats, toys, handles, and optical instruments.

Zingana, African zebrawood (Microberlinia brazzavillensis)

Zingana is from the family of Fabaceae and originated from West Africa. The genus is Microberlinia, and it is a species of Microberlinia brazzavillensis. It makes furniture, tool handles, and sporting equipment.

David D. Hughes
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