January 10, 2022

Parts of CNC Lathe Machine

CNC control panel

It is the brain of the CNC machine, where all the CNC programs are stored. It controls the whole machine through the keys on this panel. CNC machinists start and stop the machine moving axis by pressing different keys on this panel.

Enter a new program using this control panel, and transfer programs using the USB port on the control panel. In short, it is the part that controls the whole CNC machine. The CNC control panel is also called a machine control unit.

The control panel features a screen and a keyboard. This is used for the program, editing simulation, and other machine-related setting data. You can choose from the various machine and program controls on the CNC control panel for operating and controlling the CNC machine. The CNC machine works with operating system software.

Chuck

CNC lathe machine chuck clamps the component to be machined. The chuck has several parts and comes with jaws mounted on the chuck to secure the CNC part. It works as a holding device. The three-jaw hydraulic chucks are for clamping the jobs.

It makes the cylindrical and hexagonal shape easy to hold in the chuck. You are allowed to use the chuck in two modes. They are already clamping, depending on the workpiece shape and the process. The other work holding devices also can be used in CNC lathe such as collet faceplate.

Tool Turret

The tool is on the tool turret. The turret is for component machining, varying in shapes and the number of CNC tools that amount them. That is how you separate them as you choose one over the other.

A turret is a tool-carrying element used to store numerous tools required for various operations. Load external tools such as turning, grooving, and threading on the turret. Do not forget the internal CNC tools such as the drill boring bar. The turret comes with two-axis movement that is x and the set.

Headstock

The headstock of a CNC lathe machine has the main motor of the CNC lathe machine, which drives the main spindle. Mount the chuck on the spindle. It is on the left side of the CNC machine. The main feature of the headstock is the master spindle.

It runs by spinning the workpiece at a certain speed and connects the spindle for driving the CNC machines. Servo motors are spindle drives and the right side end. Fix the wall holding device to the wall assembly. It is known as headstock. When the headstock covers are removed, select gears using CNC programming instructions.

Bed

The tool turret travels over the CNC lathe bed and hardened so that any machining cannot affect them. The bottom of the lathe machine and CNC machines use a foundation for making the machine stationary, so the lathe bed does not move or vibrate when in use.

Foot pedal

CNC machinists open and close the chuck to grip the component using pedals. That is the same way the tailstock quill goes to the forward position or reverse through the pedals.

The last part for the CNC lathe is footswitches, located below the operator side. The location is convenient for the operators. They can quickly activate and deactivate the workpiece holding and work support. The left one is for clamping and declining the chuck. The other one is for both clamping and declining taste dock.

Carriage

Lathes have a carriage, located between the headstock and tailstock. The carriage guides the tool bit as it cuts or manipulates the workpiece. The carriage assembly of the lathe consists of many components that support, move, and control the tool.

The features are saddle, cross-slide, compound rest, top slide, tool post, and apron. The focus is on the saddle and the apron. The apron is on the front face of the carriage. It receives power from the lead screw and transfers it to power.

The power feed clutch uses the feed rod to power either the carriage feed or the cross slide. It is not for threading operations.

Lead Screw

A lead screw is also known as a power screw or translation screw. It is a linkage in a CNC machine, that translates turning motion into linear motion. It comes with a large area of sliding contact between their male and female members, and screw threads with frictional energy losses compared to other linkages.

Sometimes they are used to carry high power, but more for intermittent use in low power actuator and positioner mechanisms. Lead screws are in linear actuators, machine slides, and machine tools such as vices, presses, and jacks.

Feed Rod

The feed rod transmits power from the headstock to the carriage for feeding CNC operations and screw thread cutting operations. It is a power transmission mechanism used for precise linear movement of the carriage along the longitudinal axis of the lathe.

The feed rod works with the lead screw and rotates during the operation of the lathe. It allows movement to the carriage and the cross-slide using gears, a friction clutch, and a keyway along the length of the rod. The lead screw cuts threads accurately.

CNC lathe machine accessories

Centers

The center is a method of holding the workpiece in a lathe. Clamp the material between the two centers. That is the live center and dead center. The different centers are for different workpieces for specific purposes.

Chucks

Chucks support and hold the workpiece to carry out different operations in the lathe. They come in multiple variations. These chucks are the jaw universal chuck, 4 jaw independent chuck, combination chuck, magnetic chuck, and collet chuck.

Catch Plates or Carriers

Carriers and catch plates drive a workpiece when between two centers. Carriers are attached to the end of the workpiece by a set screw. Catch plates are bolted to the nose of the headstock spindle.

A carrier fits into the slot provided in wither as the projecting pin of a single pin catch plate drives the straight end or tail of the carrier attached to the workpiece. Two pins of a double pin catch plate engage with the double tail and give a uniform drive. The bent tail type works with a faceplate.

Face Plate

It is a circular plate, threaded at its center with plain and T-slots machined rapidly. It fits the lathe spindle with its central threaded portion. The job on the workpiece is held by the faceplate using bolts and clamps in the slots.

David D. Hughes
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